Peecekeaping operations: for a sustainable peace [fr]
United Nations peacekeeping operations - Intervention of Ms. Anne Gueguen, Deputy Permanent Representative, chargée d’Affaires a.i. - Security Council - 29 August 2017
"That means that operations have to have mandates that are clearer but ambitious and realistic at the same time, as well as comprehensive and targeted, in order to enable missions to deal with emergencies and prepare a peaceful future." Anne Gueguen, 29 August 2017.
First of all, I would like to thank you, Mr. President, for organizing today’s very timely debate. I would also like to thank the Deputy Secretary-General, Ambassador Gert Rosenthal and Mr. Youssef Mahmoud for their analyses, which enable us to better understand this particularly complicated issue.
I will address three main points on the action of the Security Council.
First of all, we have to continue place sustaining peace at the heart of the goals of peacekeeping operations. The goal of sustainable peace is one of the major reasons for the development of peacekeeping.
It requires that we deal with immediate and vital priorities, such as protection of the civilians and human rights, as well as with long-term goals, such as supporting political processes, security sector reform and many others. The emergence of integrated multidimensional operations meets this need and shows how the United Nations is adapting to this complex challenge.
Today, in many cases, peacekeeping operations — the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali, for example — support the development of local capacity, in particular in such areas as disarmament and security-sector reform. In such areas as justice, the restoration of State authority, weapons management and the fight against impunity, peacekeeping operations provide valuable support for the long term.
The Council has to fully play its role in that constant adaptation. That means that operations have to have mandates that are clearer but ambitious and realistic at the same time, as well as comprehensive and targeted, in order to enable missions to deal with emergencies and prepare a peaceful future. We welcome the efforts made by the Secretary-General to provide the Council with comprehensive and operational analyses in order to inform our decisions. We must collectively continue our efforts aimed at prioritizing mandates and sequencing their implementation in order to ensure that we are as close as possible to the realities on the ground. We must also, as stated by the Deputy Secretary-General, work with the troop-contributing countries so as to make sure that there are women in peacekeeping operations. That is essential in order to enable us to make as great an impact as possible on the ground.
Peacekeeping operations can therefore play a decisive role for peace, but — and this is my second point — they cannot do so by themselves. Peacekeeping operations do not operate in a bubble. In order to be successful they must be supported, complemented and strengthened by peace partners. That applies first and foremost to the host country. Its full cooperation with the peacekeeping operation is a precondition for the peacekeeping operation’s success. Above and beyond the emergency situation, the host country has to invest in a relationship with the peacekeeping operation in order to create the foundation for a long-term partnership that will ultimately result in the exit of the peacekeeping operation. Such a partnership must be based on the will to initiate the necessary reforms in areas such as governance, security and others. It is through such reforms that Governments will be able to take ownership of a sustainable peace.
Such support to peacekeeping operations must also involve the political arena. Above and beyond the specificities of each conflict, one thing we know for sure is that a lasting settlement of a conflict cannot be of a military nature alone. It must be political in nature. The synergy of the political initiatives of the Council with the neighbouring countries, regional organizations and ad hoc mediators is key in order to end up with a peace agreement that will put an end to the crisis.
A crucial area for long-term stability that is frequently overlooked is the area of economic development. The economic fragility of a country is very frequently compounded by the conflict and feeds it. We can see how in South Sudan, for example, the collapse of the economy feeds the spiral of violence. Working together in the country team, agencies, funds and programmes contribute to the effort to deal with the challenges. But there are other essential actors, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, regional banks and organizations, bilateral donors and the private sector. In that area, which is far from the mandate of the peacekeeping operations, the international community must find the tools that can enable it to coordinate its activities. As the Deputy Secretary-General said, we have to invest in the 2030 Agenda for Development and the system of Resident Coordinators if we want to make sure that the Sustainable Development Goals become a reality for one and all.
In that context — and this is the third point I would like to make — the transition towards peacebuilding serves as a pivot to ensure that sustainable peace takes root. Such a transition will only be successful if we promote the ownership by the host countries of the political and security challenges they face, as well as the social and economic challenges relating to the exit of the peacekeeping operation. That was the case in Côte d’Ivoire in 2014, for example. The United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivore (UNOCI) changed the paradigm there. It switched from a security mandate to a mandate to support the capacities of Côte d’Ivoire. The drawdown in UNOCI personnel was carried out in such a way as to ensure that the transition was orderly and responsible. The transition plan was developed jointly by the United Nations, the Government and major partners, and in that way it was carried out successfully.
Today, in Liberia and in Haiti, similar developments are under way. The international community, not only through the country teams but also through the regional organizations and bilateral donors, must accompany the process, but there must also be full mobilization on the part of the host countries. The authority of the State can be restored only if it is based on real political will, effective governance and the respect for human rights, with a clear economic policy. On all of those points, the international community, in particular the United Nations, must remain mobilized after the departure of the peacekeeping operation, in particular through the Peacebuilding Commission, whose activities we fully support.
Sustained peace is a hard long journey with frequent pitfalls. Such a complex undertaking will be successful only if it relies on a convergence of actors. Among them, peacekeeping operations, of course, play a unique, but not isolated, role. In order to be sustainable, peace has to be the outcome of the mobilization of one and all.